The snowy Polar Urals end of june [photo: Maurice de Graaf]
The Polar Ural is the most northern part of the Ural. The term 'Polar Ural'
occurs on many mineral labels incorrectly. Officially the Polar Ural, or
Polyarni Ural is everything north of 65°N. The area just south of 65°,
where many alpine mineral localities are found, is called the Pripolyarni Ural,
or the Prepolar Ural. Both areas will be discussed in this chapter. I will use
the English 'Polar Ural' on this page to denote both area's.
The Polar Ural is the highest part of the Ural range, but still most mountains are hilly. There are occasional rock faces in between. It is not so much the mountains that make this area uninhabitable, but the climate and the lack of roads. In the summer of 2003 I flew over the Polar Ural twice and while most of northern Russia was free of snow and ice, the Polar Ural was still white, as the picture above shows.
Many localities in the Polar Ural are of the so called alpine paragenese. So this is the place to explain a little about alpine minerals. Alpine mineral formation is a special kind of hydrothermal mineral formation. The buildingblocks of the minerals precipitate from hot water, often under pressure. Normally this water is derived from nearby magma and flows through cracks in the rock. This yields the classic vein deposits, the type of many ore deposits.
The Alpine Range is a large metamorphic zone. Italy moves north and the rocks inbetween are comressed. This causes the mountains to be formed. The rocks are compressed and altered metamorphically. A granite can for instance become a gneiss. During this compression all kinds of crack occur in the rock, forming cavities, or alpine clefts. Water present in the rock or meteoric water is heated up by the pressure and starts circulating through the rock, picking up all kinds of buildingstones from that rock. When the water reaches a cleft crystals can freely grow. One of the most common building blocks is silica, so quartz is present in almost all alpine clefts. The rest of the paragenese depends largely on the type of rock in which the cleft is found. Gneiss will yield a different paragenese than for instance amphibolite.
The alpine paragenese was first studied in the Alps, hence it's name. Later similar conditions where found elsewhere. The best known alpine localities outside the Alps lay in the Polar Urals.
Arbyn'ya is a phosphorite deposit on the eastern slopes of the Ural. The deposit is of devonian age. [V.P. Shatrov, 1992]
Cheln Iz is located in the eastern zone's granite-gneiss belt.
I know very little of this locality other than that Lazulite occurs here.
Actinolite Albite Allanite-(Ce) Almandine Anatase Ancylite-(Ce) Anglesite Ankerite Arsenopyrite Azurite Biotite Boulangerite Brookite Calcite Cerussite Chalcopyrite Chamosite Chrysocolla Clinochlore Clinozoisite Cobaltite Cosalite Epidote Ferro-Axinite Fluorite Fluoroapatite Galena Goethite Grossular Hematite Hemimorphite Ilmenite Kainosite-(Y) Magnetite Malachite Melanterite Meneghinite Monazite-(Ce) Montmorillonite Muscovite Orthoclase Parisite-(Ce) Piemontite Prehnite Pyrite Pyrrhotite Quartz Rectorite Rutile Schorl Smithsonite Sphalerite Tetrahedrite Thomsonite-Ca Titanite Tremolite Xenotime-(Y) Zircon Zoisite
Arsenopyrite Brookite Ferro-Axinite Fluoroapatite Hematite
The Dolnozhdannyi waterfall is located near the Silova-Yakha river, Pay Khoy Range on the Yugorsky peninsula. The locality consists of hydrothermal quartz-carbonate veins in carboniferous sediments.
Calcite Quartz Sphalerite Sulvanite Turquoise Variscite Wavellite Yushkinite
Feiko Shor is a locality from the central zone, north of Dodo.
Actinolite Albite Ferro-Axinite
Not suprising with such a name, this locality lays inthe granite-gneiss dome of the eastern zone.
Hematite Montmorillonite Paragonite Rectorite Titanite
Not an alpine locality, but a rhodonite locality.
Khasavarska is a little known alpine locality near the Kozim river. This locality is situated in the eastern zone, the granite-gneiss dome. It is located in the center of this zone, where amphibolite and epidote facies are occuring.
Ankerite Hematite Quartz (amethyst, Citrine) Svanbergite
The Kozhim river basin is mentioned as a Lazulite locality. The Lazulite occurrence is over 20km long and it is quite possible that other lazulite localities mentioned on this page are within this basin.
A well known locality for Anatase. Strangely not much more is known about this locality by me.
The Levo-Kechpelskaya deposits is a group of deposits at the northwestern contact zone of the ultra basic Voikaro-Syn'inskii massif. in the Polar Urals.
A Polar Ural locality of Lazulite.
A locality of the central zone, located south of Piramida. The mineralogy I know so far suggests we have a pegmatite here.
Florencite-(Ce) Monazite-(Ce) Xenotime-(Y)
Marun Keu is not really a locality, but a complex, covering 100 km2 along the western edge of the main suture zone of the Uralian orogeny. Within the Marun Keu occur outcrops of high pressure eklogite rocks. The eklogites where formed in a subduction zone, but the reaction was not complete resulting in the formation of hydrothermal quartz-phengite-rutile veins.
Cyanite Muscovite (var 'Fuchsite') Omphacite Pargasite (var Carinthitne) Pyrope Quartz Rutile
Kyanite Muscovite Omphacite Pargasite Pyrope
The Marun-Keu Metamorphic Complex, Polar Urals, Russia: Protolith Ages, Eclogite Facies Fluid-Rock Interaction and Exhumation History, J. Glodny et al.
Mun Hambo is best known as type locality for Tsaregorodsevite. In reality Mun Hambo, or Man Khambo is a range in which the true typelocality, Mount Yaruta is situated. So not a true locality!
I have doubts with this locality. Mount Neroika is a prominent landmark in the area. I think therefore that the minerals stated to be from Neroika are in reality from nearby Dodo. Nevertheless a list of minerals I encountered from 'Neroika'
Anatase Boulangerite Brookite Ilmenite Quartz Rutile Titanite
Located in the eastern zone gneiss dome
Brookite and Quartz
Flows in the Telpoz Iz massif.
Albite Chernovite-(Y) Piemontite Quartz Scheelite
The Omega shor is located in the central zone close to Mount Neroika and Dodo.
Anatase Brookite Chabazite Monazite-(Ce) Titanite
Quartz and Rutile
A questionable locality. There is a Tsentralyi Parnuk and a Verkhnee Parnuk.
Bementite is known from "Parnuk", but I could not figure out if Verrkhnee Parnuk or Tsentralnyi Parnuk is the true locality.....
Located in the central zone of the Polar Ural.
Calcite Gold Phlogopite Pyrite Quartz Rutile Scheelite Stolzite Vanadinite
The Pendity mine is located Pendity lake along the Balbanyu river.
Androsite-(Ce) Androsite-(La) Ardennite Chernovite-(Y) Xenotime-(Y)
Piramida is a much smaller locality than the better known ones like Dodo and Puiva. It's main mineralogy consists only of Quartz, but with nice incusions.
Brookite, calcite, Epidote, Florencite-(Ce), Ilmenite, Monazite-(Ce), Quartz, Rutile and Schorl
Pridoroshnoye is located in the center of the Chobink gneiss dome. The rocks at pridorozhnoye contain (granite)gneiss, quarzite and amphibolite.
Allanite-(Ce) Anatase Biotite Brookite Chalcopyrite Clinochlore Dolomite Epidote Fluoroapatite Ilmenite Magnetite Malachite Monazite-(Ce) Muscovite Orthoclase Pyrite Quartz Rutile Titanite Xenotime-(Y) Zircon
Puiva is one the bigger alpine localities of the polar Ural. Puiva is located about 10km southeast of Mount Neroika.
Actinolite Albite Ancylite-(Ce) Anglesite Arsenopyrite Biotite Breithauptite Chabazite-Ca Chalcopyrite Chamosite Chrysocolla Clinochlore Clinozoisite Datolite Epidote Ferro-Actinolite Ferro-Axinite Fluorapophyllite Fluoroapatite Gypsum Hematite Hemimorphite Heulandite-Ca Ilmenite Kainosite-(Y) Laumontite Malachite Montmorillonite Muscovite Orthoclase Piemontite Pyrite Pyrophyllite Pyrrhotite Quartz Rutile Smithsonite Sphalerite Stilbite-Ca Stilpnomelane Synchisite-(Ce) Thomsonite-Ca Titanite Tremolite Ullmannite Zoisite
The Pus'erka deposit is located in the Syum-Keu ultrabasic massif in the Polar Urals.
Hematite and Quartz
Rai Iz is a well known name and a true Polyarni Ural locality. The place gained fame for it's great rubies. Rai-Iz itself is an ultrabasic massif, located located between the settlements Polyarny and Charp, about 50 kilometers north of the Arctic circle. Rai-Iz is an Dunite-Harzburgite massiv. Inside this complex are metasomatite veins in which the rubies occur.Within the 300 x 100 meter small Rai Iz massif are about ten such localities. Chromite from the massif is the donor of the chromium in the ruby. The best known ruby locality within Rai-Iz is called Rubinovoye.
The Karovoye deposit and Nyrdvomenshor are part of the Rai-Iz complex and known as a Jadeite/Nephrite localities.
Actinolite Andesine Anorthite Corund Magnetite Paragonite Pargasite Phlogopite Pumpelyite-Al
Ilmenite Quartz Rutile
Actinolite Albite Elbaite Quartz
An alpine quartz mine east of Piramida.
Syum-Keu is an ultrabasic complex in the Polar Ural. It consists of Dunites and Pyroxenites.
Chromite Erlichmanite Irarsite Laurite Laurite Majakite Platinum Sperrylite
Albite Cassiterite Fergusonite-(Y) Ferrocolumbite Plumbopyrochlore Quartz Thorite Zircon
A similar alpne quartz locality
Ilmenite Laumontite Quartz Rutile
Anatase Quartz Brookite Hematite Ilmenite Kaolinite Magnetite Monazite-(Ce) Muscovite Rutile Titanite Schorl
Vyrayusskoye is a manganese skarn deposit along the Malyi Patok river in the Pripolyarni Ural.
Type locality for tsaregorodsevite. The locality is situated in the Mun Hambo range.
Anatase Brookite Monazite-(Ce) Quartz Tsaregorodtsevite
Augelite Elbaite Magnesiofoitite Monazite-(Ce) Quartz Rutile
I'm trying to find more information on the following Polar Ural localities:
Kerelken, Kuz'puayu, Man Saran Shor, Man'ya Nell, Moika Tump, Novoye Molodjozhnoye, Padezha Vozh, Pedy, Podgornoye, Podgranichnoye, Ponyu, Severnaya Lapcha, Skalistnoye, Starik mountain, Suraiz, Tsentralnyi Parnuk, Vodorazdel'noye, Vysokoye, Yubileinoye, Zapadnaya Chus Joika, Zejka
Crystal bearing veins of the subpolar Ural, V.V. Bukanov, World of Stones 7
Genstones of the Timan-North Ural prvince, N.P. Yushkin, World of Stones 10
Dodo: Alpine Klüfte im Polar-Ural, E.V Burlakov, Lapis 3/95
Zur Mineralogie del Alpinen Klüfte im Pripoljanrnyj Ural, Rußland, E.V. Burlakov, Mineralienwelt 2/95
Puiva: Gwindel und Axinite aus dem Polar-Ural, E.V. Burlakov, Lapis 7-8/97
"Alpine" Bergkristalle von Piramida im Polar-Ural, E.V. Burlakov, Lapis 5/2001
Brookite aus dem Polar-Ural: Die große Kristallkluft vom februar 2003, E.V. Burlakov, Lapis 6/2001
Rutilquartz vom Obernen Parnuk im Polar-Ural, E.V. Burlakov, Lapis 6/2002
Die Mineralien der Alpin-Paragenese aus dem Nordural / Rußland, J. Hyrsl, Mineralienwelt 6/92