General Geology

Geomap.gif (262529 bytes)
Click to get to the geological map of Karelia
of the Agency of natural resources on Karelia

More on this subject later!!!


Aganozero is located on the eastern shore of Lake Ladoga. The deposit is part of the Burakovian-Aganozero layered basic massif. The Karelia authorities state this locality as a Ni-Mg ore deposit, where all the nickel is bounded in silicates. There are probably also Chromite ores.

Chromite, Lizardite 

Alalampinskaya deposit

Located in the Sortavaala region.


Chornaya Salma
(Chernaya Salma)

Chornaya Salma is small granite pegmatite. The locality gained fame for it's large uraninite crystals.

Brannerite Monazite-(Ce) Titanite Uraninite Zircon


Chupa is a granite pegmatite.

Microcline Muscovite Oligoclase Orthoclase Pyrrhotite Quartz Schorl Uraninite

Dlinnaya Lambina

Dlinnaya Lambina is a pegmatite, but so far I could not find any furter information about this interesting locality. Any info is welcome.

Calciotantite Fergusonite-(Ce) Fergusonite-(Y) Olenite Schorl Uranmicrolite Zircon

fergussonite-y-dlinnaya.jpg (36101 bytes)


Loukhi district

(a.k.a. Gimoly)

Gimol' is a little known banded iron ore formation. It is part of the Archean Gimol'sko-Kostomuksha greenstone belt.The mineralogy is probably mainly magnetite, analogue to other BIF's.


Porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the Janisjarvi district. See there for more detailed geology


Hautavaara is a sulfide deposit located in precambrian volcanosedimentary Komatiite rocks.

So far I found no reference of Hautavaara's mineralogy, but Peter Kolesar's Zarenschätze mentions the list below as minerals occuring this type of deposit in Karelia (also Vedlozerskoye and Parandovskoye). In any case does the mineralogy consist of mainly pyrite and pyrrhotine with all the others as minor inclusions:

Borovskite Boulangerite Breithauptite Canfieldite Freibergite Galena Gudmundite Jamesonite Mackinawite Melonite Nisbite Pentlandite Pyrargyrite Pyrite Pyrrhotite Sphalerite Tennantite Tsumoite Ullmannite

S.A. Svetov and A.I. Svetova, unk date, Greenstone associations in Russian Karelia
P.Kolesar, J.Tvrdy, 2006, Zarenschätze, Bode Verlag




Hopunvaara is a Sn bearing skarn in the Pitkjaranta district. It's geology and mineralogy is likely similar to that described under 'Kitelskoye'.


Suoyarvi district

Talc deposit where talc is the main ore.

Ihalskoye deposit

A graphite deposit in the Lahdenpohja district.


Located near Pitkjaranta at the shore of Lake Ladoga

Loranskite-(Y) Yttropyrochlore-(Y)


(placemark at settlement)

The Janisjarvi deposit is situated just northeast of Lake Janisjarvi, which is northeast of Lake Ladoga. The Janisjarvi deposit is situated in the  Archean  Ilomantsi greenstone belt. This greenstone forms islands in Archean granite gneiss. Just southwest of Janisjarvi this granite gneiss borders the schist of the Svecofennide  Skelleftea-Ladoga mobile belt, in which for instance the deposits of Pitkjaranta and Kiteloye are situated. 

The Janisjarvi district consists of several deposits: Jalonvaara and Hyvanoivisto copper / iron deposits and Molybdenovaya Jalonvaara and Riuttalampi  copper molybdenum deposits. They are located close to each other and will probably be mined by a single company.


Apart from a Kyanite locality, Kem was longtime the center of fresh water pearl industry. Not that pearls are minerals, but I thought I'd give you some extra information :-)


Khit Ostrov

Khit ostrov is a gneiss

Almandine, Corund, Cyanite


Kitelskoye is located about 15km north of Pitkjaranta. More exactly it is located 1.5km north of Koirin-Oja railway station. The deposit is not yet in production.Kitelskoye is part of the Salmi-Uksa-Kitela ore zone. Kitelskoye is a skarn deposit part of the Pitkjatanta suite. The intruding rock associated with the skarn is rapakivi granite of the Koirinoja-Pitkjaranta granite-gneiss dome, of the Salma massif.  The intrusion came in different stages. The host rock is schist of the Svecofennide  Skelleftea-Ladoga mobile belt in which limestone and carbonates are present. The deposits is one of at least 15 similar deposits in the region, of which Pitkjaranta is one.

Actinolite Albite Andradite Arsenopyrite Biotite Calcite Cassiterite Chalcopyrite Diopside Eakerite Epidote Fluorite Galena Gold Hedenbergite Humite Magnetite Malayite Microcline Phlogopite Pyrite Pyrrhotite Quartz Scheelite Sphalerite Stannite Topaz Vesuvianite Zircon

Ore deposits of the USSR, V.I. Smirnov, 1977, Vol III, p243 - 346
Gmelin-Krauts Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, Sn


Korpanga is a little know diamond deposit near Kostomuksha. Korpanga is also known as an iron deposit. It is located in the Upper Archean, lopian, greenstone belt. The geology is probably similar to what is described at Taloveis.



Kosmozero is a shungite schist with U-V mineralogy, similar to the nearby Srednaya Padma.

Bariandite Carnotite Chalcocite Copper Cuprite Doloresite Francevillite Gold Haggite Hematite Montroseite Natalyite Nolandite Silver Tyuyamunite


Kostomuksha is a large iron mine north of the town of Kostomuksha. The mine is operated by Severstal


Krasnopolyanskoye is an asbestos deposit, located 1.5 km from Povenetz on the northeastern tip of Lake Onega.

Dolomite, Riebeckite


Lobash is situated about 80km west of  Belomorsk. Lobash consists of a granite intrusion into metavolcanic ultramafic rocks.

Bismuth Bornite Chalcopyrite Galena Gold Molybdenite Pyrite Pyrrhotite Scheelite Sphalerite


Lukkulaisvaara is a differentiated gabbro-norite intrusion. The country rock is Archean (2.5Ga) granite-gneiss of the Karelian terrane. About 2.4 Ga ago the Lukkulaisvaara intrusion was formed as part of a larger group of intrusions, the Oulanka Group. The locality is a typical differentiated basic intrusion consisting of layers of different gabbro and norite related rocks. Most interesting about this locality is the occurence of PGE minerals as microscopical alterations of sulphidic ores. One known sublocality is the Nadezhda deposit in a micro gabbro-norite layer.

Actinolite Almandine Anthophyllite Argentopentlandite Arsenopalladinite Augite Biotite Bornite Braggite Chalcocite Chalcopyrite Chloro-potassichastingsite Cobaltite Corund Cubanite Enstatite Epidote Froodite Gahnite Galena Gersdorffite Godlevskite Gold Greenockite Heazlewoodite Hercynite Hessite Hollingworthite Hongshiite Ilmenite Irarsite Isomerthieite Kotulskite Magnetite Majakite Marcasite Melonite Menshikovite Merenskyite Mertieite-I Mertieite-II Michenerite Millerite Moncheite Oulankaite Palladoarsenide Paolovite Pentlandite Phlogopite Platinum Polydymite Pyrite Pyrrhotite Sobolevite Sopcheite Sperrylite Sphalerite Staurolite Stillwaterite Taimyrite Talc Tarkianite Telargpalite Telluropalladinite Titanite Tremolite Tulameenite Violarite Vysotskite Zoisite Zvyagintsevite

The structure of the Lukkulaisvaara intrusion, Oulanka group, Northern Karelia:Petrological Implications, by V.A. Glebovitsky et al Canadian Mineralogis 
    Vol 39 pp607-637 (2001)
Pd-Ag tellurides from a Cl rich environment in the Lukkulaisvaara layered intrusion, northern Russian Karelia, by A.Y. Barkov et al, Canadian Mineralogist 
    Vol 39 pp639-653 (2001)

Panfilova Varaka

Located in Northern karelia, World of stones quotes this locality as Apatite locality, where 10cm crystals occur in granite pegmatites

North and East Europe, a brief review of mineral localities, A.A. Evseev, WoS 3/93 pp43-51


Pertinjarvi is the northern section of the Janisjarvi prospect. See there for more detailed geological information. 

Soanvaara iron pyrite deposit in archean volcanosedimentary rocks. There are several gold-sulfide deposits on the left bank of the Soanjoki river


Pitkyaranta is a skarn deposit. Geologically Pitkjaranta is a very complex deposit. The basis of the deposit forms a dolomitic limestone. During the Archean two  intrusions took place forming the marbles of the Kalevian-Ladogian suite and accompagnying skarn ores. Later a nearby Rapakivi granite intrusion formed a third skarn at Pitkjaranta. At least the final intrusion was followed by a hydrothermal and pneumatolithical phase.
Part of the Pitkjaranta deposit is the Lupikko shaft. This mine closed down in 1940, but yields some interesting mineralogy. Between 1842 and 1905 the mine yielded 489 tonnes of tin.

Acanthite Allanite-(Ce) Andradite Antigorite Arsenopyrite Barite Barylite Bavenite Behoite Berborite Bertrandite Beryl Bismuth Bismuthinite Bityite Bromellite Calcite Cassiterite Chalcopyrite Chamosite Chrysoberyl Clinobehoite Cubanite Danalite Diopside Edenite Epidote Euxenite-(Y) Fluoborite Fluorite Fluoroapatite Fluorvesuvianite Galena Genthelvine Goethite Hambergite Helvite Hematite Herderite Humite Lizardite Lollingite Magnesiohastingite Magnetite Marialite Mejonite Molybdenite Norbergite Phenakite Pyrite Pyrrhotite Scheelite Siderophyllite Sillimanite Silver Smithsonite Sphalerite Stokesite Taaffeite Topaz Vesuvianite

Mineralogy specifically mentioned for the Lupikko shaft:
Berborite Calcite Clinochlore Diopside Fluorite Fluorvesuvianite Goethite Hambergite Helvite Magnesite Magnetite Pyrite Smithsonite Sphalerite Vesuvianite Wickmannite

chondrodite-pitk.jpg (41168 bytes)
edenite-pitkjaranta.jpg (32710 bytes)
norbergite-pitk.jpg (36549 bytes)

Erzlagerstätten, H.Schneiderhöhn, 1962, p324
Geology and metallogeny around mantled domes in Karelia, K. Sundblad et al, Geologian 2.tutkijapäivät 12-13.3.2003
Gmelin-Krauts Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, Sn
Geology of ore deposits, V.I. Smirnov, 1977, p175


Plotina is a pegmatite a little south of Chupa.



Pudozhgorskoye is located on the eastern shore of Lake Onega. It is still a prospect and there is no mining activity. The deposit consists of a Lower Proterozoic  sheet like Gabbro-Diabase intrusion and Archean Migmatite-Granites. The intrusion is differentiated into different Gabbro-Diabase varieties. The main ore is titanomagnetite and lays under a layer of no more than 5 meter of sediment. When mining commences it will be an open pit mine.

Bornite Chalcopyrite Covellite Ilmenite Magnetite Pyrite Pyrrhotite Quartz Sphalerite


A little known gold deposit in the Ilomantsi belt (Archean greenstone)


Salanlatva is located in northern Karelia, southwest of Vuorijarvi. It is a small carbonatite intrusion about 3km in diameter that intruded in precambrean metadiabase. The intrusion has a central core of carbonatites, consisting of Sövite, calcite-dolomite carbonatite and barite dolomite carbonatites. Around this central carbonatite is a zone of magnetite-vermiculite carbonate rock. Around this is zone of ijolite and ijolite-urtite. The northern side of the intrusion has a partial zone of melteigite on the outside.

Anatase Anglesite Barite Dolomite Fluoroapatite Galena Ilmenite Lueshite Molybdenite Natroniobite Perowskite Phlogopite Pyrite Pyrochlore Rhodochrosite Siderite Sphalerite Strontianite Svanbergite Tetrahedrite

O.F. Tuttle and J. Gittins, 1966, Carbonatites, p504
Mineralogy of Carbonatites, Yu.L. Kapustin 1980


(placemark of the lake)

Shalozero is located in the Pudozh district in southeast Karelia. On the map Shalozero is a lake, north of a settlement called Ragnuksa. So far Shalozero is a prospect and there is no mining activity. Shalozero is associated with the Burakovian-Aganozero layered basic massif, which lays in the northeastern part of the Burakovian-Aganozero block. Shalovskoye is a layered (differentiated) ultrabasic intrusion, consisting of five distinct layers. From top to bottom the Ferrogabbronorite zone, the Pigeonitic Gabbro-Norite zone, the Gabbro-Norite zone, the pyroxenite zone and the mafic zone. Around the edges of the intrusion are Archean granites and Lopian schists. Chromite ore occurs disseminated  in olivine rock. Platinum and gold mineralogy is present. 

Chromite Galena Gold Platinum Pyrite Pyrrhotite Violarite


Shoksha is not so much a mineral locality, but it does have gained fame as quartzite quarry. The red proterozoic quartzite from Shoksha is widely used in Russian architecture for the past 200 years. You can find it for instance in Mikhailovky Castle and the Nicholas I monument in St.Petersburg. 

quartzite-shoksha.jpg (32011 bytes)

Shuezersk deposit

Shuezersk is described in the same way as the better known Voickij mine. Both localities also have similar mineralogy, so I suspect that these two localities are localted close to eachother. It is a typical vein deposit cutting phyllite, graphite-schist and quartzites, which are intruded by post Middle Proterozoic rocks.

Azurite Bornite Chalcopyrite Copper Galena Gold Malachite Molybdenite Pyrite Scheelite

The geochemistry of gold and it's deposits, geological survey of Canada, bulletin 280, 1979, p 97

Slyudyanoi Bor quarry

Located 12 km southwest of Belomorsk. The Slyudyanoi quarry works granite pegmatites in highly metamorphosed Archean rocks of the Tikshozero series. The main ore is microcline for pottery with minor iridiscent microcline called Belomorite as gemstone.

Beryl Biotite Elbaite Fluoroapatite Microcline Orthoclase Quartz

Srednaya Padma

Srednaya Padma is a U-V deposit, located on the Zaonezhskiy peninsula in Lake Onega. It is the type locality for Sudovikovite and Padmaite.There is a nearby and related locality called Verkhnaya Padma.Srednaya Padma is a metasomatite (albitite) in shungite bearing schist.

Bismuth Bohdanowiczite Calcite Chromphyllite Chromseladonite Clausthalite Clausthalite Coulsonite Dolomite Froodite Gold Guanajuatite Haggite Hematite Insizwaite Magnesioriebeckite Montroseite Natalyite Nolandite Padmaite Paraguanajuatite Polarite Quartz Roscoelite Sobolevskite Sudovikoite Tyuyamunite Uraninite Zincochromite

chromphyllite.jpg (37309 bytes)
chromseladonite.jpg (68866 bytes)
mg-riebeckite.jpg (74943 bytes)
tyuyamunite-srednaya.jpg (55650 bytes)


Svetloye Talc deposit

The Svetloye Talc deposit is also known as Svetloozero deposit and is located 55km from Valdai. This deposit is part of the Archean Sumozero-Kenozero greenstone belt. More precisely the Lake Kammenoye structure. Lake Svetloye is a nickel bearing ultrabasic massif that is mined for  Talc 



Taloveis is a  gold deposit situated 3km from Kostomuksha town. The Taloveis deposit is located in the southern part of the Kostomuksha greenstone structure. This structure consists of Lopian volcanosedimentary rocks. More precisely basalts and komatiites of the Kontokki series and terrigenous sedimentary rocks of the Gimoly series. Both are surrounded by Archean granite and cut by gabbro, gabbro-diabase and lamproite dykes and granite and diorite stocks. The gold occurs dissiminated in the granite as well as in quartz veins. The Lamproite is diamaniferous.

The Berendei ore occurence is part of the Taloveis deposit and probably has limited Bi, As and W mineralogy.

Diamond Gold Pyrite Quartz 


Uksa  is a Sn bearing skarn in the Pitkjaranta district. It's geology and mineralogy is likely similar to that described under 'Kitelskoye'. Uksa is located southeast of Pitkjaranta.


A little known gold deposit in the Ilomantsi belt (Archean greenstone)


A sulfide deposit in Komatiite rocks of the Vedlozero-Segozero greenstone belt. For the mineralogy see the remarks at Hautavaara, above.

Velikaya Guba

Velikaya Guba is a uranium deposit on the northern shore of Lake Onega. It is the type locality for Chromdravite and Zincochromite.

Chromdravite Dolomite Quartz Taeniolite Zincochromite

Voickij mine

This is an old mine along the Vyg river in southern Karelia. The mine was worked for gold in the 2nd half of the 18th century. It is a typical vein deposit cutting phyllite, graphite-schist and quartzites, which are intruded by post Middle Proterozoic rocks.

Azurite Bornite Chalcopyrite Copper Galena Gold Malachite Molybdenite Pyrite Scheelite

Gmelin-Krauts Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, Au
The geochemistry of gold and it's deposits, geological survey of Canada, bulletin 280, 1979, p 97

Volk Ostrov

Translated as Wolf Island, it is located in Lake Onega. It is type locality of  'Ogenite', which is a variety of Goethite

Goethite ("Ogenite")  and Quartz ("Amethyst")

(Vozhma, Vozhminskiy)

Located in northeast Karelia Vozhmin is an ultrabasic intrusion containing sulfides.The deposit consists od serpentinized wehrlites and olivinites with sulfidic nickel ores. It is the type locality for Vozhminite.

Breithauptite Chalcopyrite Copper Cubanite Geversite Godlevskite Heazlewoodite Magnetite Millerite Nickel Orcelite Pentlandite Pyrrhotite Tucekite Violarite Vozhminite



The Agency for natural resources on Republic of Karelia has a great website about not yet developed mining localities in Karelia. There are detailed descriptions of the geology of most of these deposits, as well as some geological maps. http://www.gov.karelia.ru/~geolog/kargeo_e.htm